Sensors14 7; doi: Metamaterials are artificial materials synthesized by embedding specific metallic inclusions. Some of these materials exhibit either negative permittivity or negative permeability at resonance [ 1 ]. In recent years, numerous researchers have been attracted to design microwave sensors based on metamaterials due to their cost effectiveness, miniaturization and label-free detection capabilities.
Recently, several sensors based on modified SRRs have been successfully introduced for displacement and velocity detection applications [ 67 ]. Furthermore, a diamond-shape tapered SRR [ 8 ], and a horn-shaped SRR [ 9 ] were proposed to have a fixed resonant frequency so Split ring resonator simulation dating sensor can be operated as an inexpensive single frequency system.
Generally, planar metamaterials which consists of a subwavelength resonator can exhibit a strong localization and enhancement of fields to improve the sensor selectivity for detecting nonlinear substances and enable detection of extremely small amounts of substrate [ 10 ].
Among the many metamaterial unit cell designs, metal split ring resonators different "Split ring resonator simulation dating" have been extensively demonstrated experimentally and successfully applied in biomolecular sensing. For example, Lee et al. In this design, the biomolecule is made to bind to the surface of the ring by immersing the sensor into several solutions which might degrade the performance of the sensor itself.
The sensor consists of a microstrip line loaded with circular SRRs on both sides that are directly connected to the edge of the line. The issue is when depositing the sample at several places, this introduces a high degree of inaccuracy and yet the idea of covering the whole area is not practical when the sample availability or the amount is very limited. Another group of researchers had employed microfluidics channels on metamaterial-based sensors in order to deliver liquid-type samples onto the sensing area [ 1415 ].
However, some of the designs showed degradation in the robustness and sensitivity of the sensor when microfluidics channel is introduced.
Specifically, the ring forms the inductor and the split forms the capacitor. The resonance takes place in SRR when the electric energy stored in the capacitor is balanced with the magnetic energy stored in the inductor. The changes in capacitance or inductance due to dielectric loading Split ring resonator simulation dating dielectric samples leads to a considerable shift in the resonance frequency, f r which is given by Equation 1.
Measurement in delta shift in resonance frequency allows direct sensing of small volume of sample: To achieve higher sensitivity, the sensor needs to have a sharp resonance in frequency response and high concentration of electric field is require to enable the detection in dielectric environments when the interrogation sample is deposited on the surface of the resonator [ 16 ].
Generally, the field confinement of conventional SRRs is relatively weak, and bigger in size thus limiting its sensitivity in detecting any dielectric change [ 17 ]. As mentioned Split ring resonator simulation dating [ 18 ], an increase in the split gap number would increase the high-field region, increasing the small volume of the dielectric probe and decreasing the operational frequency.
In this work, by adopting multi-ring with multiple gap rectangular SRRs onto a microstrip transmission line, a new structure has been constructed to the enhance sensing performance of the device. It is believed that by increasing a number of split gaps, it will provide a strong and localized field enhancement in the selected area and decrease the operating frequency.
Furthermore, by introducing an extended split length, the capacitive region will be
Split ring resonator simulation dating and electric field confinement will be increased. In order to improve the sensitivity of the SRR sensor, a device that has sharper and deeper dip in its transmission resonance, a much lower operating frequency and more regions of high electric fields will be selected.
Generally, the resonance method usually provides higher accuracy and better sensitivity compared to the non-resonant method. The resonance frequency changes when a sample interacts with the field distribution of a resonating structure.
The change in resonance frequency and material properties of sample are related to each other and this can be expressed by the following Equation 2 [ 19 ]: E 0 and H 0 are the field
Split ring resonator simulation dating without the perturbation and E 1 and H 1 are the field distributions with the perturbation.
To date, the above mentioned perturbation approach were successfully employed by several researchers to extract the properties of the material [ 2021 ]. The proposed sensor is designed to study the feasibility of using metamaterials for dielectric material detection. Motivated from the research conducted by Bilotti [ 22 ] an aligned-gap multi-ring SRR structure is proposed as a transducer for dielectric sample detection.
The basic idea in implementing the multi-ring SRR is to increase the distributed capacitance between the strips without increasing area occupied by the resonator, leading to lower resonance frequency [ 23 ]. Moreover, the proposed aligned-gap multi-ring SRR A-G MSRR structure is Split ring resonator simulation dating in such a way so as to increase the high field region at the Split ring resonator simulation dating and decrease the operating frequency due to the increment in capacitance value.
When a resonator element is introduced on both sides, the proposed design has slightly lower resonant frequency and deeper dip in the transmission resonance. These resonators are excited by the time-varying H -Field of the microstrip line. For this design, the resonator is positioned in close proximity to a microstrip transmission line, which builds up a magnetic field around itself in a quasi-TEM wave propagation.
This leads to an induced resonating current in the Split ring resonator simulation dating and generates an equivalent dipole moment which exhibits negative electromagnetic permeability.
Furthermore, the distance between microstrip lines and resonators should be as small as possible to enhance the coupling. Therefore, a rectangular geometry is chosen instead of a circular ones to maximize coupling to the microstrip transmission line, which leads to stronger resonance of the device.
The unit cell is designed with extended splits to interact with pertuber for which the dielectric changes are detected. Based on the layout and proposed unit cell structures based on Figures 1 and 2the sensors are designed to operate near 5 GHz using a full wave electromagnetic simulator [ 25 ]. Split ring resonator simulation dating proposed sensors are designed on a planar substrate, a commercially available Rogers RT substrate having a dielectric constant of 2.
The metallic inclusions are made of copper with the thickness of 0.
Table 1 summarizes the optimized parameters of each proposed structure. Each of the proposed unit cells were simulated using a full-wave electromagnetic simulator [ 25 ] to obtain the transmission coefficients, S 21 magnitudes.
It is clearly observed that the simulated S 21 for each structure in Figure 3 revealed a frequency at 5 GHz for the aligned-gap SRR and 4. The resonance dip for aligned-gap and centered-gap structures are In Split ring resonator simulation dating paper, a modified Nicolson-Ross-Weir approach [ 26 ] was chosen to extract the permittivity and permeability from the S-parameter obtained using [ 25 ].
The proposed sensors were fabricated on Roger RT substrate according to the dimensions stated in Table 1 using standard photolithography techniques. The photograph of the fabricated sensor is shown in Figure 5.
The sensor is formed on one side of the substrate, while the other side is grounded. A rectangular block of brass with SMA ports is used as the sensor holder to avoid misalignment by the coaxial cable when the sensor is directly connected to an Anritsu D Vector Network Analyzer VNA for S-parameter measurements.
For comparison purposes, the simulated and measured S 21 for both designs are shown in Figure 6. Table 3 summarizes the simulated and measured responses. As Split ring resonator simulation dating be seen from the simulation graph in Figure 6it obviously demonstrates that the aligned-gap structure has a narrower band and sharper dip which reveals its high Q nature compared with other structures.
It is clear that the results show some small deviations between simulation and the measurement. The measured resonance frequencies for both sensors are slightly shifted from the simulation while the measured magnitude of transmission coefficient, S 21is slightly lowered than the simulated one.
The difference between the simulated and the measured results is mainly due to mismatch between the SMA connectors and the feed lines as well as fabrication tolerance and limits in the simulation accuracy. Furthermore, the effects of the sample holder as well as the possibility Split ring resonator simulation dating having a thin air layer between the sample holder and the sensor itself are excluded in the simulation for both sensors.
In order to adopt the proposed structure for bio-sensing applications, an electric field
Split ring resonator simulation dating the split gap needs to be observed. Generally, SRR structures are predicted to develop an intense and localized electric field within the split in the ring which is very sensitive to any dielectric.
As illustrated in Figure 6 in the inset, on resonance, a strong electric field is established across the split
Split ring resonator simulation dating. It is obviously seen that the aligned-gap SRR structure strongly confines the electric field around the capacitive gap, with peak values of 2.
The reason behind this is due to the strong coupling across the gaps of the structure, which depends on the distance between the gaps. The experimental setup is outlined in Figure 7.
During the measurement, the response of the sensor is monitored and recorded upon loading with the variation sample under test. Here, the gap capacitance of the proposed sensor is compromised by introducing sample materials in the gap as shown in Figure 7.
To visualize the design for sensing applications, the sensors were loaded and simulated with various dielectric samples from 1 to The variation of results can be observed through Figure 8a,b for both types of sensor. From the results obtain, the resonance frequency is shifted down according to the increasing value of dielectric constant of the samples due to the higher capacitance value when a dielectric material is "Split ring resonator simulation dating." As a result, according to Equation 1the higher the capacitance, the lower the resonance frequency will be.
Therefore, an expression for the aligned-gap sensor and centered-gap sensor can be modeled by using a curve fitting method based on the data presented in Figure 8a Split ring resonator simulation dating and the polynomials
Split ring resonator simulation dating in the figure are obtained as follows: Thus, from the simulation, the sensor demonstrates a sensitivity of 0.
To validate the proposed sensors and estimate their potential in dielectric sensing, the resonance frequency as well as the resonance frequency shift is observed when various dielectric samples were introduced at one of the split gaps of the sensor. In both sensor designs, one side of the resonator is used for detecting the sample while the other side provides the reference frequency. Various samples such as Duroid RT [ 27 Split ring resonator simulation dating, Rexolite [ 28 ], FR4 [ 29 ] and plexiglass [ 27 ] were put onto the split gap area of sensor.
For each design, three sensors were fabricated for reproducibility measurements and each measurement was repeated three times. Initially, baseline measurements were acquired for each new fabricated sample to obtain the relationship between the frequency shift and the dielectric value. Upon loading, the electric field interacts with the sample, which will cause a shift in the
Split ring resonator simulation dating frequency. From the experiment conducted for both sensors, the resonance frequency is shifted to lower frequency with increasing the permittivity value of the sample while the reference frequency is maintained close to constant.
Generally, the coupling capacitance between the rings and the gap capacitance both change after adding a sample. These changes are proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric sample. In addition, the variation of the dip depends on the loss tangent of the sample material. Higher sample dielectric loss will contribute to a smaller dip of S 21 magnitude. Through the observation of results, as predicted in simulations, increasing the sample permittivity reduces the resonance frequency.
The difference between theoretical and measured results is presumably caused by manual sample deposition, which results in a slight difference in the sample location. The results given in Figure 10a ,b have revealed that the aligned-gap sensor gave a better observable readout shift compared to
Split ring resonator simulation dating sensor. Three measurements were taken for each calibration sample, and the average values were used in curve fitting method. Thus by using data presented in Figure 11a,ba polynomial expression for the aligned-gap sensor and centered-gap sensor are obtained as follows: These equations can be employed to determine the dielectric constant of the unknown material under test.
Table 4 summarized the experimental results and the extracted value of dielectric properties for each material under test according to the above polynomial equations. Figure 12 shows the reproducibility of the fabricated sensor in measuring the dielectric value of the samples. It is believed that the small discrepancies are acceptable due to the reason of fabrication tolerance.
As mentioned in the previous subsection the resonance frequency is considered as an effective microwave parameter of the SRR used as a sensor. Split ring resonator simulation dating demonstrate the high sensitivity of the proposed sensor, an observation of change in the resonant frequency is recorded and tabulated as in Figure From the plotted graph, the sensors demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.
This paper presents two designs of microwave sensors based metamaterials, namely the aligned-gap multi split ring resonator and centered-gap multi split ring resonator, for dielectric sensing purposes.
It is believed that this structure can also provide Split ring resonator simulation dating sensitivity by introducing a sharper and deeper dip which contributes to a high Q -factor compared to the conventional designs of SRRs. A comparative study "Split ring resonator simulation dating" split ring resonator (SRR) of "Split ring resonator simulation dating" geometrical shape is presented in this paper.
studied using electromagnetic simulator and their comparative analysis is presented. Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 02 August Simulation of split ring resonator (SRR) with CST MWS Join Date: Apr ; Posts: 1; Helped: 0 / 0; Points: ; Level: 4. Split ring resonators made of conducting wires for performance with conventional SRR is made and the results are verified by simulation.
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