The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. The American Psychiatric
Dsm history homosexuality in japan listed homosexuality in the DSM-I inbut almost immediately that classification came under scrutiny in research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.
That research and subsequent studies consistently failed to produce any empirical or scientific basis for regarding homosexuality as anything other than a natural and normal sexual orientation that is a healthy and positive expression of human sexuality. Upon a thorough review of
Dsm history homosexuality in japan scientific data, the American Psychological Association followed in and also called on all mental health professionals take the lead in "removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated" with homosexuality.
Inthe National Association of Social Workers adopted the same position as the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association, in Dsm history homosexuality in japan of scientific evidence.
The longstanding consensus of scientific research and clinical literature demonstrate that same-sex sexual and romantic attractions, feelings, and behaviors are normal and positive variations of human sexuality. The view of homosexuality as a psychological disorder has been seen in literature
Dsm history homosexuality in japan research on homosexuality first began; however, psychology as a discipline has evolved over the years in its position on homosexuality.
Current attitudes have their roots in religious, legal, and cultural underpinnings. Some Ancient Near Eastern communities, such as the Israeliteshad strict codes forbidding homosexual activity, and this gave way to later usage of the same texts by the original missionaries of Christianitywho themselves descended from the tribes of Israel ; Paul in particular is notable for his allusion to and reinforcement of such texts in his letters to nascent churches.
Later, the Apostolic Fathers and their successors continued to speak against homosexual activity whenever they mentioned it in their surviving writings.
In the early Middle Ages "Dsm history homosexuality in japan" Christian Church ignored homosexuality in secular society; however, by the end of the 12th century, hostility towards homosexuality began to emerge and spread through Europe's secular and religious institutions.
There were official expressions condemning the "unnatural" nature of homosexual behavior in the works of Thomas Aquinas and others. Until the 19th century, homosexual activity was referred to as "unnatural, crimes against nature", sodomy or buggery and was punishable by law, sometimes by death.
In the beginning of the 19th century, people began studying homosexuality scientifically. At this time, most theories regarded homosexuality as a disease, which had a great influence on how it was viewed culturally. Psychiatrists began to believe homosexuality could be cured through therapy and freedom of self, and other theories about the genetic and hormonal origin of homosexuality were becoming accepted.
There were variations of how homosexuality was viewed as pathological. Freud and Ellis believed that homosexuality was not normal, but was "unavoidable" for some people. Alfred Kinsey 's research and publications about homosexuality began the social and cultural shift away from viewing homosexuality as an abnormal condition.
These shifting viewpoints in the psychological studies of homosexuality are evident in
Dsm history homosexuality in japan placement in the first version of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual DSM inand subsequent change inin which the diagnosis of ego-dystonic homosexuality replaced the DSM-II category of "sexual orientation disturbance".
Sigmund Freud's views on homosexuality were complex. In his attempts to understand the causes and development of homosexuality, he first explained bisexuality as an "original libido endowment",  by which he meant that all humans are born bisexual. He believed that the libido has a homosexual portion and a heterosexual portion, and through the course of development one wins out over the other. He also believed in a basic biological explanation for natural bisexuality in which humans are all biologically capable of being aroused by either sex.
Because of this, he described homosexuality as one of many sexual options available to people.
Dsm history homosexuality in japan proposed that humans' inherent bisexuality leads individuals to eventually choose which expression of sexuality is more gratifying, but because of cultural taboos Dsm history homosexuality in japan is repressed in many people.
According to Freud, if there were no taboos people would choose whichever was more gratifying to them — and this could remain fluid throughout life — sometimes a person would be homosexual, sometimes heterosexual. Some other causes of homosexuality for which he advocated included an inverted Oedipus complex where individuals begin to Dsm history homosexuality in japan with their mother and take themselves as a love object.
This love of "Dsm history homosexuality in japan" self is defined as narcissism, and Freud thought that people who were high in the trait of narcissism would be more likely to develop homosexuality because loving the same sex is like an extension of loving oneself. The results of the study indicated that homosexual students score higher in two measures of narcissism and lower on a self-esteem measure, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Freud believed treatment of homosexuality was not successful because the individual does not want to give up their homosexual identity because it brings them pleasure.
He used analysis and hypnotic suggestion as treatments, but showed little success. While Freud himself may have come to a more accepting view of homosexuality, his legacy in the field of psychoanalysisespecially in the United States viewed homosexuality as negative, abnormal and caused by family and developmental issues.
Dsm history homosexuality in japan was these views that significantly impacted the rationale for putting homosexuality in the first and second publications of the American Psychiatric Association's DSM, conceptualizing it as a mental disorder and further stigmatizing homosexuality in society.
Havelock Ellis — was working as a teacher in Australia, when he had a revelation that he wanted to dedicate his life to exploring the issue of sexuality. He returned to London in and enrolled in St. The book was first published in German, and a year later it was translated into English.
Their book explored homosexual relationships, and in a progressive approach for their time they refused to criminalize or pathologize the acts and emotions that were present in homosexual relationships. Ellis disagreed with Freud on a few points regarding homosexuality, especially regarding its development. He argued that homosexuals do not have a clear cut Oedipus complex but they do have strong feelings of inadequacy, born of fears of failure, and may also be afraid of relations with women.
He believed that homosexuality is not something people are born with, but that at some point humans are all sexually indiscriminant, and then narrow down and choose which sex acts to stick with. According to Ellis, some people choose to engage in homosexuality, while others will choose heterosexuality. Ellis is often attributed with coining the term homosexuality but in reality he despised the word because it conflated Latin and Greek roots and instead used the term invert in his published works.
Soon after Sexual Inversion was published in England, it was banned as lewd and scandalous. Ellis argued that homosexuality was a characteristic of a minority, and was not acquired or a vice and was not curable. He advocated changing the laws to leave those who chose to practice homosexuality at peace, because at the time it was a punishable crime.
Dsm history homosexuality in japan believed societal reform could occur, but only after the public was educated. His book became a landmark in the understanding of His explorations into different sexual practices originated from his study of the variations in mating practices among wasps. He developed the Kinsey Scalewhich measures sexual orientation in ranges from 0 to 6 with 0 being exclusively heterosexual and 6 being exclusively homosexual.
Kinsey published the books Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Femalewhich brought him a lot of fame and controversy. The prevailing approach to homosexuality at the time was to pathologize and attempt to change homosexuals.
Kinsey's book demonstrated that homosexuality was more common than was assumed, suggesting that these behaviors are normal and part of a continuum of sexual behaviors. The social, medical and legal approach to homosexuality ultimately led for its inclusion in the first and second publications of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM. This served to conceptualize homosexuality as a mental disorder and further stigmatize homosexuality in society.
However, the evolution in scientific study and empirical data from Kinsey, Evelyn Hooker and others confronted these beliefs, and by the s psychiatrists and psychologists were radically altering their views on homosexuality. These studies failed to support the previous assumptions that family dynamics, trauma and gender identity were factors in the development of sexual orientation.
Due to lack of supporting data, as well as exponentially increasing pressure from the advocates of homosexuality, the Board of Directors for the American Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality as a mental disorder from the DSM in Major psychological research into homosexuality is divided into five categories: Psychological research in these areas has always been important to counteracting prejudicial attitudes and actions, and to the gay and lesbian rights movement generally.
Numerous different theories have been proposed to explain the development of homosexuality, but there is so far no universally accepted account of the origins of a homosexual sexual orientation. Anti-gay attitudes and behaviors sometimes called homophobia or heterosexism have been objects of psychological research. Such research usually focuses on attitudes hostile to gay men, rather than attitudes hostile to lesbians.
Such victimization is related to higher levels of depression, anxiety, anger, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress. In addition, while research has suggested that "families with a strong emphasis on traditional values — implying the importance of religion, an emphasis on marriage and having children — were less accepting of homosexuality than were low-tradition families",  emerging research suggests that this may not be universal.
For example, recent [ when? For example, a Catholic mother of a gay man shared that she focuses on "the greatest commandment of all, which is, love". Similarly, a Methodist mother referenced Jesus in her discussion of loving her gay son, as she said, "I look at Jesus' message of love and forgiveness and that we're friends by the blood, that I don't Dsm history homosexuality in japan that people are condemned by the actions they have done.
Psychological research in this area includes examining mental health issues including stress, depression, or addictive behavior faced by gay and lesbian people as a result of the difficulties experience because of their sexual orientation, physical appearance issues, eating disorders, or gender atypical behavior.
The likelihood of suicide attempts is higher in both gay males and lesbians, as well as bisexual individuals of both sexes, when compared to their heterosexual counterparts.
Studies dispute the exact difference in suicide rate compared to heterosexuals with a minimum of 0. Race and age play a factor in the increased risk. The highest ratios for males are attributed to young Caucasians. By the age of 25, their risk is more than halved; however, the risk for black gay males at that age steadily to 8.
Over a lifetime, the increased likelihoods are 5. Lesbian and bisexual females have the opposite trend, with fewer attempts during the teenager years compared to heterosexual females.
Through a lifetime, the likelihood for Caucasian females is nearly triple that of their heterosexual counterparts; however, for black females there is minimal change less than Dsm history homosexuality in japan.
Gay and lesbian youth who attempt suicide are disproportionately subject to anti-gay attitudes, often have fewer skills for coping with discrimination, isolation, and loneliness,    and were more likely to experience family rejection  than those who do not attempt suicide. Another study found that gay and bisexual youth who attempted suicide had more feminine gender roles,  adopted a non-heterosexual identity at a young age and were more likely than peers to report sexual abuse, drug abuse, and arrests for misconduct.
For others, sexual orientation may be fluid and change over time". LGBT parenting is when lesbiangaybisexualand transgender LGBT people are parents to one or more children, as either biological or Dsm history homosexuality in japan parents. Gay men have options which include "foster care, variations of domestic and international adoption, diverse forms of surrogacy whether Dsm history homosexuality in japan or gestationaland kinship arrangements, wherein they might coparent with a woman or women with whom they are intimately but not sexually involved".
In the U. In Januarythe European Court of Human Rights ruled that same-sex couples have the right to adopt a child. Although it is sometimes asserted in policy debates that heterosexual couples are inherently better parents than same-sex couples, or that the children of lesbian or gay parents fare worse than children raised by heterosexual parents, those assertions are not supported by scientific research literature.
Much research has documented the lack of correlation between parents' Dsm history homosexuality in japan orientation and "Dsm history homosexuality in japan" measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment. These data have demonstrated no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with one or more gay parents.
CPA is that some persons and institutions are misinterpreting the findings of psychological research to support their positions, when their positions are more accurately based on other systems of belief or values.
The vast majority of families in the United States today are not the "middle-class family with a bread-winning father and a stay-at-home mother, married to each other and raising their biological children" that has been viewed as the norm.
Since the end of the s, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings. Most people with a homosexual orientation who seek psychotherapy do so for the same reasons as straight Dsm history homosexuality in japan stress, relationship difficulties, difficulty adjusting to social or work situations, etc.
Regardless of the issue that psychotherapy is sought for, there is a high risk of anti-gay bias being directed at non-heterosexual clients. Most relationship issues are shared equally among couples regardless of sexual orientation, but LGBT clients additionally have to deal with homophobia, heterosexism, and other societal oppressions.
Individuals may also be at different stages in the coming out process. Often, same-sex couples do not have as many role models for successful relationships as opposite-sex couples. There may be issues with gender-role socialization that does not affect opposite-sex couples. A significant number of men and women experience conflict surrounding homosexual expression within a mixed-orientation marriage.
Gay affirmative psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy Dsm history homosexuality in japan gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients which encourages them to accept their sexual orientation, and does not attempt to change their sexual orientation to heterosexual, or to eliminate or diminish their same-sex desires and behaviors. Clients whose religious beliefs are inconsistent with homosexual behavior may require some other method of integrating their conflicting religious and sexual selves.
It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall. The field of psychology has extensively studied homosexuality as a human sexual orientation. The American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the DSM-I in the DSM-II category Dsm history homosexuality in japan "sexual orientation disturbance". However, it was not until in DSM-III-R that "Dsm history homosexuality in japan" was entirely dropped as a mental disorder.
McLelland, Male Homosexuality in Modern Japan; Ishida and Murakami Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III), originally.
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