Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. What do we know, how do we create knowledge and what do we do with it? Do social movements exist? Jewish criticism of Israel and its relationship to a developing social movement review essay pp. Interface is globally organised in a series of different regional collectives, and is produced as a multilingual journal. URL for this article: What kinds of knowledge
Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating movements produce?
Movements produce knowledge about the social world. More specifically, they produce knowledge from below, information about society which is inconvenient to and resisted by those above: A crucial aspect of movement practice is making known that which others would prefer to keep from public view, be that practices of torture and extra-judicial executions, the effects of individual pollutants and the costs of global warming, levels of rape Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating sexual abuse, the facts of poverty and exploitation, caste oppression and racism — the list is long.
On a larger scale, movements highlight new ways of seeing the world: This process reaches back at least to the "Atlantic revolutions" of the 18th century, in France and North America, Ireland and Haiti, and continues today with an immense range of movements around the world. As Eyerman and Jamison have highlighted, movements are engaged in a constant process of generating counter- expertise, sometimes from their own resources, sometimes through finding allies in traditional intellectual professions such as academia, journalism and the law, and sometimes through pushing the creation of new forms of knowledge.
In recent years, academic fields such as women's studies, adult and popular education, peace studies, queer studies, Black Studies, post-colonial studies, working-class studies and so on testify to this. At present, the rise of indigenous movements in the Americas, the revelations by survivors of institutional sexual abuse in Europe and North America, the Dalit movement in India, and many others are generating their own bodies of associated research.
The process is a long one, though: Movements have also, of course, reflected on their own role in bringing about social change. One of the most important forms of this reflection has been strategic: More recently,
Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating movements have reflected tensions between "eco-socialists" and "realists", "deep" and "light" greens, and so on, combining the question of systemic analysis Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating that of paths to change.
The examples above are not meant to be exhaustive; they do not include, for example, the substantial bodies of reflection contained within adult and popular education movements, in community organising, in the practice of liberation psychology and "mad pride", in the long-standing anarchist tradition, within indigenous movements, or most recently within the global justice movement Maddison and Scalmer The rise, over the last fifteen years since the Zapatista-sponsored Encuentros in particular of this most recent wave of international networking has brought movements which had been largely separated into situations where they have needed to talk to each other more, on many different levels from the organising of a protest to strategies for global change.
It has also pushed forward debate within movements on how movements work, what we do, what choices we make, and so on. At the same time, the history of the last two hundred years, and in particular of the last thirty, as there have been substantial rewards for fragmentation co- optation into the state, the commodification of identities, academic specialisation and so on has left us with a situation where our movements are often able to discourse with great fluency on questions of global analysis — general theoretical understandings of the social world, normative critiques of particular aspects, particular mechanisms of its workings — while largely "agreeing to differ" on the questions that have most immediate practical relevance: How should we organise?
How do movements produce knowledge?
There have been a series of attempts to analyse the ways in which social movements produce knowledge. In general terms, they raise two kinds of question. One is to focus on the issue of subaltern knowledge as against official knowledge: The other is to focus on the specific processes of knowledge production which are bound up with social movement development: Within the Marxist tradition, these questions have been posed as issues of class.
Thus the Communist Manifesto presents a developmental understanding of how class consciousness develops in the process of struggle, in opposition to official ideologies but with the development of a world-view and programme which is adequate to the class in formation: In comparable majority-world peasant settings, but with a more pessimistic edge, James Scott etc. By contrast, US black feminist bell hooks etc. The work of feminist Sandra Harding etc. The relationship between knowledge from below and action from below is then a central one in this understanding.
Within social movements research, finally, we have already mentioned the widely-cited work of Eyerman and Jamisonwhich has been fundamental to positioning social movements as producers of knowledge, both about the social world and about how to change it. As social movements make their way into academia, many participants speak and write as at once activists and academics, within theoretical traditions that "Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating" not separate the two activities of knowledge-making and movement action.
By contrast, contemporary social movement studies as it now exists, institutionalized as an increasingly canonized body of knowledge within North American and West European Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating, has become increasingly distant from any relationship to movements other than the descriptive and analytic — despite the fact that a number of its most Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating authors started from positions sympathetic to social movements, if not actually within them.
There are nevertheless still important bodies of knowledge about movements are apparently produced within purely academic contexts. Here we say apparently because as in all social research it is research participants who generate data in the documents they produce, in interviews, as objects of participant observation and so on.
Thus researchers who are not themselves activists — as well as many who are — have to engage closely with movements in the work of social movements research, negotiating access, convincing people to complete surveys, and offering their services in various ways.
Yet the practice of social movement studies, as a sub-discipline, includes virtually no explicit acknowledgement of this practical relationship, and a far sharper separation between the kinds of canonical knowledge produced by academics and the informal or activist knowledge produced within movements than in many other fields. Similarly, rather than a one-way relationship where the knowledge produced by movements is drawn on for purely academic purposes within an essentially closed discourse and the results of research are typically restricted to university libraries, our goal is to make relevant research public, without charge and in languages which seek communication rather than accreditation.
In this issue The articles in this first issue highlight some of the issues raised above, and can be read as a dialogue between activist researchers who are all deeply involved in the process of knowledge production with, and within, their own movements — whether they are "Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating" based in movement institutions or in universities, or both.
Often missing in social movement studies is an explicit Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating on methodology and the consequences different research techniques and have on the analysis produced.
Covering a wide range of movement knowledge projects, she argues that these tendencies are complementary rather than necessarily opposed to each other, but that there are substantial distinctions between individual and collective forms of knowledge production and ownership. The article "Movimentos sociais existem? Claiming that social movement outcomes are the result of the interaction between the activity or lack of thereof of all movement members and an often unstable, unpredictable environment, the author advocates for a more comprehensive model of analysis of the role of social movements in processes of social change that takes into account that often they are neither the cause nor the engine that bring about the outcomes that they aim to promote.
It reflects on the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Knowledge is created by ordinary Venezuelans in the process of reflection on their participation in social movements and community struggle.
Knowledge in this context is knowledge for social emancipation, dignity and political transformation. The note gives a "Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating" introduction to their work and a contribution to widening our own sense of educational praxis. We close this issue of the journal with two substantial review pieces reflecting on contemporary movement knowledge — as it is written, and as it is researched. He highlights the strengths of her popular education approach politically and theoretically as well as drawing out its difficulties in articulating strategy.
Read — or listened to — as a series of voices coming from related experiences but each spoken or written within their own language and tradition, these various pieces highlight the intellectual robustness and practical grounding of contemporary movement knowledge and research in this area.
Where to now for research on movement knowledge? Our experience in working on this issue has Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating us that one of the key directions for research on movement knowledge has to be in the direction of what de Sousa Santos has described as an ecology of knowledges. There is a Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating temptation, in particular for academics interested in this field, to attempt to develop a perspective which marries our own political commitments to a perspective which will gain us disciplinary status.
The result, of course, is to increase our academic capital and distance our intellectual work from social movements — or divide it into two parts: The political outcomes of this are fairly clear to see2. There is of course also a political version of this, which marries a sense of intellectual superiority to various kinds of organisational sectarianism or an insistence on a single model of knowledge production as inherently superior to all others.
If knowledges are situated, any individual writer
Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating or any collective — has at some point to take responsibility for naming the place they are speaking from, whether this is identified in terms of a social-structural situation, a political strategy or something else.
Our interpretations of reality — if we are good researchers — are not arbitrary, but neither are they universal or uncontested. What we learn in our own movements, as we work on particular projects, campaigns and strategies, is new to us, and what we learn from our allies doubly so — since it is grounded not in a remaking of our own worlds but in their remaking of theirs.
This does not mean that we all have to stay fixed in our own different spaces, with no possibility of communication - or disagreement. It means that the product of these processes — of the encounter of different movement knowledges, and different intellectual traditions — is not foreseeable in advance, and is generated in an encounter which if it is "Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating" leaves the different knowledges and languages involved changed; not merged, but changed.
If we are serious about tackling the larger structures and systems that govern our lives, not simply tinkering with our local circumstances, this is the direction we need
Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating go in.
This means two things for research on movement knowledge. One is that it needs to be programmatically inter-disciplinary in relation to academia. Origins of the Interface project Interface was conceived in the context of an annual conference on Alternative Futures and Popular Protest in Manchester, that brings activists and academics into fruitful and sometimes explosive dialogues about the movements they study and participate in.
What is perhaps unusual for a small conference is that many participants keep returning year after year. What is it that draws them back? While Manchester
Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating a nice place and the organizers are great people, clearly there are some other compelling attractions. But it also provides a place for activists engaged in their own movement based-knowledge production to develop that knowledge in a useful and stimulating context, and to learn from who have dedicated themselves to studying and reading about a vast array of movements.
For activists, it provides an opportunity - often unavailable in movement forums - to step back from short-term political agendas and Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating systematically on movement practice and learning.
The volumes of proceedings produced since Barker and Tyldesley etc. For many of us, this experience has shown us that research and politics are not as sharply opposed as some of our own comrades and colleagues — in our own organisations or disciplines — would like to have us believe; and that it is possible to be both a good activist and a good researcher at the same time, whether in a university, in a movement organisation, or both.
This space between academia and activism provides a rich terrain for learning about social movements. The shape of the field There are some excellent social movement journals already in existence; yet as many observers have commented — e. Remarkably little of this research is of use or interest to movement activists, who are typically different kinds of question in their own theorising Barker and Cox Similarly, there are a number of very high-quality movement periodicals out there.
Yet in many intellectual traditions there is now an overwhelming focus on the analysis of the social world and of discussion of the issues movements campaign on. By contrast, within those traditions that pay close attention to methodology and structure, this is typically done within a taken-for-granted analysis of movements. All too little attention is paid to learning from other movements, or to learning from the past — except within the "origin myths" of particular schools of thought, explaining why all the major questions about movements have already been answered.
Paradoxically, while there are still movements that independently transmit their own origin myths to participants, they are increasingly generated and reproduced in university settings training students in particular disciplines or theoretical perspectives — or sold as part of acquiring particular, high-status "radical" identities. One of the implications of this is that a priori commitment to a particular understanding of movement organising is often underwritten by career and lifestyle choices which make alternative strategies literally unthinkable.
With Interface we hope to provide an alternative outlet for work that is relevant to both movements and academics, and that draws from a range of literatures, disciplines and experiences that might not find expression in other social movement specific journals — while simultaneously providing a meeting-place for theorists and knowledge producers involved in a range of movements, and often individually isolated within their own organisations, to encounter others working on the same problems from different starting-points.
There are now a wide range of different approaches to carrying out "movement- relevant research", particularly those collected in Croteau and in Graeber and Shukaitisand those discussed by Fuster this volume. We see this as a Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating of richness rather than a weakness, so long as these different approaches are in dialogue with one another.
More generally, our goal is to develop a living interaction between the different types of knowledge produced in and around movements, the different academic disciplines interested in the area, the different kinds of knowledge, culture and intellectual traditions involved, and so on.
Because of the diversity of people's working situations, we work with a diversity of article types. Many are double-blind peer-reviewed, enabling effective feedback which is not based on personal connections, as well as allowing for academic recognition Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating high-quality work irrespective of its origins.
Alongside this, however, we publish action notes, transcripts of discussions, interviews and key documents, highlighting the practioner emphasis of the journal; as well as review essays, reviews and teaching notes, intended as useful for movement educationalists as well as teachers in a range of situations.
We remain open for proposals for other types of articles that may better suit particular situations and needs. With individual editors able to work in Russian, Afrikaans and Zulu, we are actively seeking to expand our linguistic range to include material in Asian and African languages in particular. Each of these groups commissions and reviews articles independently, is responsible for its own linguistic realities, and makes its own decisions as to the best way to organise relationships between movement theorists and academic research, based on the very different situation in different contexts.
We are keen to find new collaborators for the Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating, Mediterranean, North American, Oceanian, South Asian, Spanish-speaking Latin Oq foi o iluminismo yahoo dating and East and Central European groups in particular; please contact the relevant editors as listed on our homepage. By this we mean the increasing tension between officially-approved versions of popular participation in politics geared towards the mobilisation of consent for neo- liberalism — the world of consultation and participation, NGOs and partnership — and the less polite and polished world of people's attempts to participate in politics on their own terms, in their own forms and for their own purposes — social movements, popular protest, direct action, and so on.
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