The level of understanding regarding the problem of stuttering Awareness of Self Therapy among adult stutters. Cross Sectional study design was used for this study. Online dating stutterers in literature is completed within the time frame of six months from September to February Between the eras of October to MarchAdult clients of stuttering were taken, who were above the age of 15 years.
Inclusion criteria included all the males and females above the age of 15 who were stuttering. It includes students, males and females, having blockage, repetition, prolongation or any other primary or secondary symptom of stuttering. All the stutters with congenital or chronic diseases were excluded. All patients were interviewed briefly prior considering them to be a part of study, to ensure they meet the inclusion criteria.
After literature review and expert opinion, a Performa was developed and validated by 10 experts having minimum 5 years field experience. Performa included the information of bio data, age of the individual and information about their education or employment status, onset of the problem, when they started taking therapy, duration of taking therapy and type of therapy, and whether they are taking therapy once, twice or "Online dating stutterers in literature" in a week.
There is significant correlation between Understanding regarding the problem of Stuttering and Awareness of Self therapy for Stuttering. There is significant effectiveness found, of Understanding regarding the problem of Stuttering on Awareness of Self therapy for Stuttering. It was concluded that adult stutters who understand their problems in speaking, are also aware of certain self-therapy techniques that are helpful "Online dating stutterers in literature" them in coping with their stuttering behaviour.
These self-therapy techniques vary individual to individual because of the individual differences. It was also concluded the Online dating stutterers in literature stutter has awareness regarding his speech problem the greater he use and employ self-help therapeutic techniques.
The study was conducted only on adult stutters. It was a short term research. Population was taken from only one city of Pakistan. Study should be conducted on large scale with large sample size. Study should include population of more than 1 city of Pakistan. Study can include children who too, in future research.
Online dating stutterers in literature is also known as disfluencies.
There are many approaches for treatment of stuttering in children as well as in adults, however, a rather new and very beneficial technique is Self-Therapy. Self-Therapy is actually a program that helps stutter to face his problem in speech and also helps in working towards improved better communication with others. In Psychology, Warren defines stuttering as "A disturbance in the rhythm of speech, either an intermittent blocking or the convulsive repetition of a sound.
Webster's New International Dictionary differentiates stuttering and stammering with a slight difference. They define stuttering as "To speak in a hasty and stumbling way, with spasmodic repetition of syllables and consonants; to hesitate or stumble in uttering words; to utter with spasmodic repetitions or pauses.
It has been discussed widely that what actually causes stammering. There
Online dating stutterers in literature many theories and views that describe the causes of stammering.
Among all of them, the major cause is a libidinal fixation at oral-erotic level of development. It has been assumed that prolongation at this stage leads to pleasure seeking in sucking and other oral gratification and get the child away from the real source of satisfaction through speaking.
Stutters are basically positive and egotistic. Freudian Psychoanalytic treatment was failed to deal with this cause of speech disorder and basically it focuses first and foremost on the stage of oral libido [ 2 ].
Another cause that has been discussed is that stuttering is basically not caused by physical issues. It is Online dating stutterers in literature something physical but only psychological. This view believes that stutter basically suffers from the word amnesia and this causes them to suffer and speech "Online dating stutterers in literature" as an interrupted non fluent production.
This forgetfulness breaks the thought process that is important in speech production. Those who believe in this school of thought focused to work on thought process training of the individual, to lessen the word forgetfulness during speech production rather than speech production correction.
This training of thought process includes training by signals, speaking in harmony, soundless speech, relaxation, unhurried speech and breathing training [ 3 ]. All school of thoughts are agreed that there is no single or particular cause of stuttering but various most important, influential, underneath and predisposing causes are there. The main and most important cause of stammering is familial patterns of anxiety, annoyance, and over-guidance or domination by Online dating stutterers in literature proficient parent.
Wellknown predisposing reasons are physical limitation and undernourishment. Emotional upset is also a predisposing cause of problem.
It has been seen that gender ratio are also different being about 1 female to 20 males. Those who belong to this school of thought believes on working with negative practice is more fruitful than other therapeutic techniques [ 4 ].
Usually stutters are being reported lately and there are variations in the nature of cause, therapy procedures and prognosis levels. When detailed information was taken from adult stutters from various parts of the region in America, it was concluded that no matter from which region one belongs, all stutters share common causes, etiologies of stammering, therapeutic applications, outcome and prognosis level is almost the same for all [ 5 ].
Many Online dating stutterers in literature and therapists confuse the foundation of stuttering in children and adults. Many believe that it is the result of malnutrition or mal nourishment and many consider that it runs in the family and is in the blood of the child.
While, there are many who have strong belief in neurological causation of stuttering. Sometimes, culture barriers, language barriers also play an Online dating stutterers in literature role in provoking the stuttering.
Anxiety, problematic relationships, parent child poor interactions, violence, restricted behaviors, emotions, social dysfunctions, learning problems, language problems and grammatical issues are important provokers of the stuttering in children as
Online dating stutterers in literature as in adults [ 6 ]. Few Emotional and Psychological behaviors are so problematic that they cause
Online dating stutterers in literature conflict and inner breakdown in an individual.
That unresolved conflicts complicate the personality to the extent that an individual starts stuttering to escape these conflicts [ 7 ]. Left handedness has been seen in majority of the stutters and gender based severity level has also been observed commonly.
Males have been rated as severe stutters. It might be due to the manipulation of testosterone and hypo pigmentation factors [ 8 ]. There are researches who claim chemical changes and breathing pattern irregularity causes stuttering. Vibrant capacity of carbon dioxide CO 2 is present when we produce speech in the air. There are researches that indicate the left hemisphere dysfunction in stutters.
There level of being anxiousness is also heightened [ 10 ]. As it is believed to be psychogenic in nature by most of the experts, and many other experts are there who are against this categorization who follow psychogenic causation, and focuses more on neurological, hereditary and other reasons, Mahr and Leith recommended three criterias to diagnose Online dating stutterers in literature stuttering including non-appearance of organic etiology, distorted speech patterns and perceptible psychosomatic factors.
This study is important for knowing whether people have understanding regarding their problematic speech patterns and have knowledge what are the signs and symptoms of stuttering and what does they really mean and do in production of speech and how they cause problem in speech production. This study is also significantly covering how stutters use self-therapeutic techniques and what are the impact of self-therapeutic techniques in their speech pattern and more over in their lives.
Between the eras of October to MarchInclusion criteria incorporated all the males and females between the age of 15 years to 37 years, having stuttering. Study includes students working or non-workingmales and females, having blockage, repetition, prolongation or any other primary or secondary symptom of stuttering. Information that was taken from participants shows that minimum age of onset was 3 years and maximum age of onset was 12 years.
Purposive sampling technique was used for the current study. Sample size was calculated by using the following formula with the help of bio-statistician.
Sample of patients was taken. Data shows that maximum participants were taking therapy from last one year, most participants were taking therapy from four years to five years and only 1 was reported for taking therapy for the longer period of 10 years.
Interview and history taking reveals that patients were taking therapy but that was not usually on regular basis. Time gaps were reported usually by those who have been taken therapy for longer periods. After literature review and expert opinion, a Performa was developed and validated by 10 experts of minimum 5 years experience.
This included the information regarding bio data, age of the individuals and information about their education or employment status, onset of the problem, when they started taking therapy, duration of taking therapy and type of therapy whether they are taking therapy once, twice or thrice in a week.
The assumptions of the multiple regression was satisfactory as in present study no tolerance value was below the cut-off i. It has been also found that per variable IV 10 participants were considered, for optimal sample for the regression analysis. The value of positive B indicates that as the Online dating stutterers in literature increases, the odds of the outcome occurring "Online dating stutterers in literature," and it also shows that one standard deviation unit change in the outcome variable.
Different Online dating stutterers in literature of therapeutic strategies have been studied, to see which strategy helps stutters more. It has been seen that relapse rate was quite high in those patients who had fluency shaping treatment methods but those who had been taken stuttering modification technique along with self-help groups, were having lower relapse rate.
They also had positive selfbeliefs and higher satisfaction level because of their treatment plan, and this satisfaction was actually the reason of lower relapse rate in these patients [ 11 ]. In a research, stutters were observed quarterly during the year. Observations were made to see the effects of concentrated treatment plans on adult stutterers.
In present research, it been proved too, that there is correlation between the awareness of stuttering and the treatment Online dating stutterers in literature have been receiving.
The more satisfaction individual has in therapy plan, the better and early results will be shown [ 12 ]. Self-help therapy books for stuttering, cassettes and other extra resources are usually not scientific, but sometimes they have many unyielding Online dating stutterers in literature and benefits. They have been helping many people to change their habits and also personality traits that are causing problems in their fluency as well as in intelligibility of speech.
Many individuals who think that they have some problems that must need to be resolve follow such material, even without the guidance of any therapist. Although without guidance, such material is helping the stutter, but if they seek proper guidance provided by therapists, it would be more helpful in minimizing the problematic speech utterances and prognosis will be better. Moreover, the more comforting therapeutic technique patient would have, the more "Online dating stutterers in literature" and better prognosis he would get [ 13 ].
Internet has been used widely to help and guide individuals with emotional, anxiety, depression and stuttering problems. Self-help resources have been given, that are available online, all the time and all protocols and methodologies are given. It has been common practice these days that stutters go online and study all relevant material and use and apply them as a self-help therapy.
Although it is common practice these days but ethically it is wrong to practice and Online dating stutterers in literature these techniques without any recommendations. Although with proper guidance and with the help of a therapist, self-help therapy plans has better prognosis rate than other therapeutic techniques [ 14 ].
There have been researches discussing which method of treatment is more beneficial for the long term benefit of Many reports that symptom reduction treatment is beneficial in all cases but there is an incidence that claims prolongation and airflow techniques are more beneficial.
Other claims that self-help therapy is more beneficial and long lasting prognosis has also been reported in self-help therapy. Research has shown that most patient who has awareness of their problem, feel Online dating stutterers in literature in applying self-help therapeutic strategies and these are helping them more than traditional treatment plan of stuttering [ 15 ].
Methods: We conducted a search of Online dating stutterers in literature literature for the past 20 with clients who stutter as Online dating stutterers in literature as Internet-based computer programs that might The discussion focuses on clinical research to date for stuttering. and finally a literature review that discusses the impact of stuttering on emotional Over 30 online dating websites were also contacted, with one website. they would date a person who stutters, and factors that would in uence.
their decision treatment outcome goals for many college students who stutter and. should be . The literature suggests that . Diverse Disabilities and Dating Online.
- Awareness about stuttering and self-therapy of stutter in the adult stutters
- A preliminary review of literature surrounding stuttering, with a focus on .. The women who spoke about their experiences of dating expressed that they were.
- Stuttering is a highly perplexing disorder of speech fluency which is noted even in its .. (e) latency of producing online changes reflects time required for lexical search, . focus of research since early s and continues till date all over. Previous literature has reported that stuttering is linked with lowered life quality Feb 04, / Accepted Date: Mar 28, / Published Date: Mar 31,
There was a...
In spite of the fact that sooner or later many children experience natural recovery, their initial large number also requires greater availability of clinical services. The recovered group performed similar to the controls but the persistent group had poorer skills.
Employing a telephone interview with one member of each of 4, randomly selected families totaling 12,members in New South Wales, Australia, interviewees were asked if any person residing in their home stuttered at the time or had ever stuttered word repetition was included in the definition.
The prevalence for ages 5 to 18 was. The most common procedure employed, especially with large samples, used questionnaires returned by secondary informers, such as school teachers who reported the number of stuttering children in their classes e.
The level of understanding regarding the problem of stuttering Awareness of Self Therapy among adult stutters. Cross Sectional study design was used for this study. Library is completed within the epoch frame of six months from September to February Surrounded by the eras of October to March , Adult clients of stuttering were taken, who were above the age of 15 years.
Inclusion criteria included all the males and females heavens the age of 15 who were stuttering. It includes students, males and females, having blockage, repetition, prolongation or any other primary or secondary symptom of stuttering. All the stutters with congenital or chronic diseases were excluded. All patients were interviewed briefly prior considering them to be a part of inspect, to ensure they meet the inclusion criteria. After literature survey and expert opinion, a Performa was developed and validated sooner than 10 experts having minimum 5 years field experience.
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Do girls go from boyfriend to boyfriend?Recent studies suggest that people who stutter fear listeners' negative reactions to their stuttering and that . Hall and MacIntyre () reviewed the literature on stereotyping and .. (see Von Tiling () for more details, including an online speech sample). Condition July 17, Accepted date: February 28, . Published online Nov doi: [/slink-bridge.infos] .. The literature on stuttering reveals a measure of confusion that has lasted for .. as well as many, if not all, ethnic/cultural groups, to date, no lifespan, or shorter-span ..
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- The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 Evidence marshaled from the literature on stuttering and...
- Awareness about stuttering and self-therapy of stutter in the adult stutters
- Epidemiology of Stuttering: 21st Century Advances
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